30 April 2008
My senior year of college has flown by. I can't believe I'm actually graduating college in one week and 2 days. It just seems unreal. How did I get that old? I'm not mature enough to be a college graduate. When did this happen??
Even my brother is growing up. He'll be here next year. It's such a strange place to be right now - a liminal state. I'm neither a college student, vet student, or working member of society. I'm finishing up one phase of my life and moving to the next. Overall I am not greatly stressed about it, but I do spend quite a lot of time wondering how it is all going to work out. Will I like Columbia? Am I ready for the challenging curriculum of vet school? Who will my friends be? Am I going to get that greyhound or will I end up taking Rusty? Where will I go to church? How often will I be able to see my family? What about my Fayetteville friends? What about Chase? So much will be changing in the next 4 months as I graduate and then move out of Arkansas.
28 April 2008
Yes, that's right...we now have three dogs. Our neighbors aren't around much to care for their doggy...They had been gone for about a week and little Rusty stayed over in our yard with our dogs because he was so lonely...
Haha, right after the bath I saw that the neighbors were finally home. So I picked up the little squirt and carried him next door.
24 April 2008
22 April 2008
Lately there has been a huge debate about the "art" of a Costa Rica artist who allegedly tied a stray dog in an art exhibit until the dog died of starvation. There are so many stories on the internet, it is nearly impossible to separate fact from fiction. Did he actually feed the dog? Did the dog really survive? I don't know. However alarming and disturbing this "art" was, it's served to raise the awareness of millions. Mind you, I don't agree with what the artist did, but the world has enough violence in it. Hopefully instead of lynching the artist, I hope people will instead focus their attention on alleviating the suffering of strays as well as participate in spay and neuter programs. There are stray dogs everywhere...in the United States alone nearly 10 million animals...10,000,000...are euthanized each year. This number could be significantly reduced if owners would responsibly spay and neuter their dogs (except for the exceptional ones). I don't think the US is ever going to reduce this number to zero, but I do believe we can help. It's a sad world we live in these days, but it's not enough to sit back and curse the evil days. What good does sitting on your bum do? If the millions of people who signed the petition against this artist also donated one dollar to saving the strays or a spay/neuter program that would produce amazing results. If we all just sit back and say.."how horrible..how could any human being do something like that?" Nothing will ever get done. Isn't society's lack of action also despicable? Are sins of omission less than sins of commission? I know I am guilty of squandering opportunities to love someone or to help. God calls for us to make the most of every opportunity, and yearns for use to do good to others in His name. It's a sad world we live in, but God's spirit still dwells among us. Therefore there is still good left in the world, and we would do well to make sure the goodness spreads :)
I suppose on a similar note, I was at Chase's apartment today and heard a noise similar to gunshots. Soon after that, we heard sirens that Chase said sounded like they stopped at his apartment. He peeked outside and saw the police taping off an area of his apartment. An ambulance siren was heard leaving the apartment. I checked the police dispatch logs online and saw that there had indeed been a shooting there around 3pm. Scary...I can't believe I heard a shooting. I have no idea what happend, but everyone was just walking around as if nothing happened. It was very strange. 2 hours later on the dispatch log I noticed "suspicious activity" had been reported. The whole business is strange. :(
20 April 2008
GREYHOUND! GREYHOUND!!! GREYHOUND!! I just needed to get that out there!
This is the agency I'll be adopting through! Oh my...there's Pat, Party, Noah (gorgeous!!), Jeb (almost same b-day as me), Endie, Dillon, or Dan. Those are all the "cat safe" ones...which is what I want. Black and whites are my favorites I think, but I'm not picky! I think the fawn colored ones are my least favorites (but a fawn colored one would be fine too). Most of all I want a lovable, friendly couch potato who doesn't have too much of a prey drive. Who I could trust in my apartment all day and enjoy a nice walk in the park next door in the mornings and in the evenings ^_^ I think the not "cat-friendly" greys really need a home more than the others, but as a vet...I'm not sure what fuzzy creatures I'm going to end up with. So I'm not sure an individual with a strong prey drive would be the best for me. But there are some that make my eyes water b/c they need a home so badly...Stormy's description says she'd make a good only dog...which is good. *sigh* I will trust the rescue agency to match me up with my perfect companion though. :D I just can't wait for my greyhound though...
We traveled to Mizzou for my family to check out the school and for me and Anna to find an apartment. I'm pretty excited about having Anna as a roommate now. It' will be good for my greyhound to have another person to socialize with :D :D :D :D Here will all are with our new Mizzou CVM shirts! Haha...we'll always be razorbacks at heart though.
Funny story... We stayed a regular old hotel the first night. It was old and a bit run down, but a safe place to sleep ^_^ The second night we drove to the Lake of the Ozarks and stayed in a timeshare condo. The lady at the front desk told us upon our arrival, "We're sorry, but they've overbooked us. SO you've been upgraded to the 3-bedroom penthouse. It has it's own private hot tub on the deck overlooking the lake." SWEET!!!! It was pretty awesome. Haha, they even provided matching bathrobes!
In other news, the mission was accomplished. I think everyone liked Mizzou, and we found an apartment that has 2 bedrooms 2 bathrooms for $550 per month. The guy seemed pretty nice, and even waived the pet fee for us! Our apartment is right next to a big park!
18 April 2008
As much as I say I don't care about my grades, I really do care. Sheeesh.
However, I am very much looking foward to my trip to MO tonight! YAYA! Going to Columbia!!
Have a great weekend!
Here's a lesson on transcription. Enjoy.... I'll put some new pictures up tomorrow.
Gene expression is accomplished through proteins.
The sequence of nucleotides in
You all know that
A set of three nucleotides in mRNA codes is called a codon. There are 4 nucleotides possible meaning there are a total of 64 possible codons (4*4*4). However only 61 code for amino acids. The remaining codons serve as stop codons (UAA,
Transcription in Prokaryotes is catalyzed by RNA polymerase. Bacterial cells only have a single type of RNA polymerase. It consists of 5 subunits: 2 alpha, 2 beta, and one sigma. The sigma factor is critical for accurate transcription as it promotes RNA polymerase binding to the promoter sequence. The alpha and beta subunits are virtually the same in all RNA polymerase molecules, but the sigma varies depending on the gene category.
The promoter sequence is a specific sequence of
The place where transcription begins is called the startpoint/site. Some sequences help identify this spot. Upstream about 10bp (-10bp) there is a sequence known as the Pribnow box (TATAAT). Even farther upstream at -35 there is the -35 sequence (TTGACA). This is an example for one sigma factor. Basically you need to know that sigma factors recognize various sequences specific to that sigma factor.
So… the RNA polymerase binds to the
The chunk of
RNA polymerase moves along the
This elongation continues for awhile…until RNA polymerase reaches a termination signal (stop codon). RNA polymerase dissociates and an RNA transcript is born.
When RNA poly runs into a termination sequence, the end of transcription is triggered. There are two types of termination signals in prokaryotes that are classified by their independence or dependence on a protein called a
Transcription in Eukaryotes (aka…humans, dogs, cats, Betta fish, zebras, pigmy goats, poison arrow frogs, etc).
Of course, Eukaryotes have to outdo prokaryotes so they make things a little more complicated. Eukaryotes have three (3) types of RNA polymerase. Each one uses a different promoter. These promoters can be downstream OR upstream. For RNA polymerase to even bind to
Here’s some stuff about the different types. RNA pol I involves ribosomalRNA. II is mRNA. II is tRNA. Mitochondria nd Chloroplasts have their own RNA pol molecules. All these buggers have different promoters – good thing I don’t have to know them!
RNA polymerase I has 2 parts. Remember this is the RNA pol involved with rRNA. The first part is called the core promoter, which is the minimum
And you thought RNA pol I was complicated. Well, RNA polymerase II has 4 types of
The four of those are categorized into 2 types of core promoters. There are the TATA driven promoters – have an Inr and a TATA (may or may not have the
Transcription factors….These guys are always involved with the transcription of all nuclear genes. A transcription factor is a protein that is required for transcription. YUCK! There are so many of these little buggers. 1st TATA binding protein (
After RNA pol II has bound…E, and H (helicase) bind too. Now you have A, B, D, E, F, and H bound to
Termination!! Of course it’s different depending on the RNA pol…
RNA pol I termination occurs when the protein binds to 18 nucleotide termination signal in the RNA chain.
**RNA pol II – cleaved by an endonuclease at a specific site before transcription is even finished/terminated. This occurs 10-35 nucleotides downstream of AAUAAA. OR the cleavage site is where the poly A tail is added to the mRNA.
After all this, this is only the primary transcript…which has to go through more modification post transcription. rRNAs are cleaved from a common rRNA precursor. Processing includes removing chunks from the primary transcript and chemical modifications. rRNA is the most abundant/stable form of RNA in a cell. 70-80% of total cellular RNA is rRNA, 10-20% is tRNA, <10% style=""> Ribosomes have multiple typs of rRNA (28S, 18S, 5.8S, and 5S).
28S, 18S, and 5.8S are all encoded by a single transcription unit that is transcribed by RNA pol I and produces a single primary transcript (pre-rRNA). These rRNA are separated by spacer regions. Human haploid genes contain 150-200 copies that are separated by nontranscribed spacer regions on the
tRNA processing has a lot of stuff that happens too: removal, addition, and chemical modification of nucleotides. There are several dozen types of tRNA…each one brings a particular AA or more to a codon of mRNA during translation. tRNAs are funky little dudes. They all share general structure and are about 70-90nt in length. The have 2 hairpin loops that have complementary base pairing.
tRNAs are processed too. First a 16nt sequence is removed from the 5’ end (head/leader). Two terminal nucleotides are removed from the 3’ (tail) end…and are replaced with CCA. Some ways nucleotides are processed: methlyation, unusual bases (dihdrouracil, ribothymine, pseudouridine, inosine)
mRNA processing generally involves capping (polyA tail) and intron removal. Most of this occurs in the nucleus so the mRNA is ready for translation when it reaches the cytoplasm. Translation (cytoplasm) and transcription (nucleus) in eukaryotes are separated by time and space. The pre-mRNA is often much longer than the final mRNA. Ends are modified. 5’ end has a 5’cap and then they have a poly A 3’ tail. Poly A = lots and lots of Adenine.
The 5’ cap is a methylated at position 7 of the purine ring Guanosine nucleotide. This added shortly after the initiation of transcription. This protects from 5’ nucleases…and helps postion the mRNA on the ribosome. It’s essential for translation initiation.
More..The Poly A tail is normally from 50-250 nucleotides long, but normally is around 200. Present at most 3’ tail ends of eukaryotic mRNA. Histone mRNAs lack a poly A tail. Completed after transcription. Genes do not have long stretches of T. PolyA polymerase catalyzes this addition of polyA sequences to mRNA..independently.
The signal that says add a poly A tail is AAUAAA. The mRNA is cleaved about 10-35 nucleotides downstream of AAUAAA. Poly A protects mRNA from attack at 3’ end, recognized by specific proteins that help mRNA get out of the nucleous, and help the ribosomes recognized mRNA for translation.
Introns are sequences that are within the primary transcript that don’t appear in the RNA. Exons appear in the final functional RNA…Introns are out. Exons stay in.
What removes introns? Splicesomes remove introns from pre-mRNA in a process called RNA splicing. A splicesome is an assembly of an RNA-protein complex known as a snRNP (small nuclear robonucleoproteins…great vocab word, eh?). Remove introns and shove the exons together.
Some introns are self slicing. Suicidal introns are called ribozymes.
13 April 2008
Don't you want to get him out of that cage? I'm sure he'd be much happier on my couch...good thing I have an old couch :D
Yes...I have greyhounds on my brain. I got these picture from various sites online (please don't sue me for copyright infringement - I just wanted to spread the love of greyhounds)... But aren't they awesome?!? They're one of the oldest breeds of domesticated dogs. I CAN'T WAIT TO GET MY GREYHOUND!! I'm so excited about, I can't hardly focus on school (but then I can't focus on school well anyway).
Here's a layout I did for MerCas Designs using her My Boy kit and new alpha. Credits on my DST gallery...
For an A...
I need a 93% average on my remaining two cell bio tests. Ouch.
78% on my one remaining genetics test
75% on both remaining physics test
For a B...
90 on one cell bio test, or two 78%
%50 both physics tests
I think it's safe to say I'm in the clear on everything except for Cell bio. It's the only class I struggle with, but the only class that is interesting this semester. My next physics test is tomorrow, and I haven't cracked a book yet for it. Physics is my least favorite class without question. I'll start studying for it after this post...but I'm really more worried about cell bio. *sigh* I just might end up with a B in that class. Chances are I'll make an A in the rest - maintaining a 3.9 GPA. GEEZE!! this is my last semester of undergraduate! I have only 2 fulls weeks of school left...plus one partial week and a week of tests.
In other news, Anna came over for dinner to talk about apartment stuff. She said she liked my colorful dishes so that's good. I'm so EXCITED ABOUT NEXT YEAR!!! and my GREYHOUND!!!!!!!!!!!
12 April 2008
This weekend I'm supposed to be working and studying for next week...but I'm having a hard time getting started. I'll probably have to go lock myself in the library with all my materials and my laptop. ay ya ya ya... I basically have a rough draft finished on my thesis, and I've entered the editing phase of thesis-ing. So that's good. Life will be essentially a breeze after that. You know what...it is impossible for my GPA to drop below a 3.6 at this point. Even if I made all Fs this semester (well except for in my internship classes and classes that I've already gotten an A in). However I want to graduate with a 3.9 so that means I can only make one B. Haha, but your honors graduation status is already decided. I'll be graduating as a Summa Cum Laude. So even if I mess up this semester...it doesn't really matter. YEAH!!! Light at the end of the tunnel!!! The only class that really worries me anyway is Cell Bio. I have a hard time with his multiple choice questions.
In other news, I decided to have a roommate next year. I'll be rooming with my friend Anna. We talked about it and it seems like it's going to work out really well ^_^ First of all, she loves dogs...specifically she loves GREYHOUNDS! Considering I've got greyhounds running around in my brain lately, this seems to be an ideal roommate situation! We're both allergic to cats...and like a clean apartment environment. I'm messy, but I'm certainly no slob. I clean sporadically when its necessary (or I have big tests coming up...today is a good cleaning day for example). I think it would work out really well, and it will be nice to have a companion. I'm GOING TO GET A GREYHOUND!!!!
Oh...and if there are any readers out there who are way behind all scrap booking, my roommate and I are thinking of starting a scrap for hire business. Any one interested? I'm not sure what the rates would be, but it takes me about an hour to produce a layout. SO help fund vet school/law school! <3 <3 <3 <3
06 April 2008
02 April 2008
Today was a good day for me. First there was the Celebrating our Seniors in the Union...free t-shirt, free lunch, and free career fair junk. I found a service opportunity that might interest my bro. It sounded neat, and they seemed really excited he liked birding (really, really excited). I'm dropping the brochure in the mail tomorrow. I think he should at least email the lady in charge for some more details. Oh, the shirt is pretty neat too. It's gray and says on the front, "U of A Graduate" and on the back, "My name's on Senior Walk 2008" Yeah baby! How cool is that. My class is going to be on the bend of the Greek Theater (look for it in 2 years, George!!). So yay free shirt. Then tonight was the Ag. Senior Dinner. We had the standard tacos, brief speeches...and all received traveling mugs. Fun. But now for the good part! Guess who won the grand door prize of a $100 Visa gift card! That's right! ME! I'm not sure I've ever one a door prize before! So I promptly went out and blew it. I bought 2 books (Marley and Me and The Other End of the Leash), and 3 DVDs. The first one is a triple feature with All Dogs Go to Heaven, Rock-A-Doodle, and The Secret of Nimh. Yes...three classics I grew up watching on TV, daycare, and elementary school. I'm pretty excited about them, because I haven't seen them in ages! Ah, the nostalgic feeling old cartoons bring. Then I also bought Disney's Pocahontas, another cartoon classic. I had a hard time deciding between Pocahontas and Robin Hood. 101 Dalmations is out of the vault too! So many good Disney movies. Yes, I admit...it's a very mature selection. The final DVD I purchased is Cars. I was reluctant to watch this movie at first, but it surpassed my expectations. It's a wonderful movie about the effect of the modern 70 mph freeways on old highways (route 66) and towns. I love Cars. It sort of reminds me of 71 coming up to Fayetteville. This bendy road runs parallel to 540 so most people take 540, but there are some beautiful scenic areas and cool cabins along 71. The road itself is worth the drive it's so crooked and at times steep! I also bought a b-day present for Megann and some stuff for the brother (which will be in the mail soon).
Anyway, I'm very excited about the summer. I bought some seeds I would like to plant when I get back to the house. I bought sweet corn, cowpeas, okra, cucumber, and some more gourd seeds. I'm going to try to plant the corn first and grow the peas on the corn stalks. I can't remember which culture used to do this. I've read though that sweet corn doesn't produce strong enough stalks, but I'm going to try it anyway. I thought about growing a pumpkin too - just one plant. I guess I'll plant some gourds too. Hmm...I might run out of dirt though... Ah. I need my own plot o' dirt.
AAAAAHHHHH!!!!! I'm graduating college!!!! AAAAAH!!!!